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The addition of a dopant to a semiconductor , known as doping , has the effect of shifting the Fermi levels within the material. This results in a material with predominantly negative ( n-type ) or positive ( p-type ) charge carriers depending on the dopant variety. Pure semiconductors that have been altered by the presence of dopants are known as extrinsic semiconductors [See: intrinsic semiconductor ]. Dopants are introduced into semiconductors in a variety of techniques: solid sources, gases, spin on liquid, and ion implanting. See ion implantation , surface diffusion , and solid sources footnote.

The extent of solubility ranges widely, from infinitely soluble (without limit) (fully miscible [1] ) such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. The term insoluble is often applied to poorly or very poorly soluble compounds. A common threshold to describe something as insoluble is less than g per 100 mL of solvent. [2]

As an example: a red lens will filter out all but the red portion of light from a bulb, so if the light being emitted from the bulb is all red, none or very little light will be blocked by the lens. The light from a white LED bulb contains very little light in the red portion of the visible spectrum, so most of the light that contributes to its higher lumen value would be filtered out by a red lens. This makes the white bulb appear dimmer than the red bulb.


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