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1580s, from Italian cavalliere "mounted soldier, knight; gentleman serving as a lady's escort," from Late Latin caballarius "horseman," from Vulgar Latin caballus , the common Vulgar Latin word for "horse" (and source of Italian cavallo , French cheval , Spanish caballo , Irish capall , Welsh ceffyl ), displacing Latin equus (see equine ).

Sense advanced in 17c. to "knight," then "courtly gentleman" (but also, pejoratively, "swaggerer"), which led to the adjectival senses, especially "disdainful" (1650s). Meaning "Royalist adherent of Charles I" is from 1641. Meaning "one who devotes himself solely to attendance on a lady" is from 1817, roughly translating Italian cavaliere-servente . In classical Latin caballus was "work horse, pack horse," sometimes, disdainfully, "hack, nag." "Not a native Lat. word (as the second -a- would show), though the source of the borrowing is uncertain" [Tucker]. Perhaps from some Balkan or Anatolian language, and meaning, originally, "gelding." The same source is thought to have yielded Old Church Slavonic kobyla .

There are many natural carcinogens. Aflatoxin B 1 , which is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus growing on stored grains , nuts and peanut butter , is an example of a potent, naturally occurring microbial carcinogen. Certain viruses such as hepatitis B and human papilloma virus have been found to cause cancer in humans. The first one shown to cause cancer in animals is Rous sarcoma virus , discovered in 1910 by Peyton Rous . Other infectious organisms which cause cancer in humans include some bacteria (. Helicobacter pylori [2] [3] ) and helminths (. Opisthorchis viverrini [4] and Clonorchis sinensis [5] .


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